Exploring Java 22: New Features and Enhancements

In this article we unpack some of the most exciting new features of Java 22. Let’s dive right in!

The release of Java 22 marks another significant milestone in the evolution of one of the most robust and widely used programming languages in the world. Java 22 introduces a suite of new features and enhancements that cater to the needs of the modern developer. We delve into 4 key updates of Java 22, providing a detailed overview of the changes and their potential impact.

Structured Concurrency: Simplifying Multithreading

One of the most anticipated features in Java 22 is the introduction of structured concurrency, which aims to simplify multithreading in Java applications. Structured concurrency is a paradigm that enhances readability and maintainability of concurrent code by structuring it in a way that ensures threads are more predictable and easier to manage.

In traditional concurrency models, managing the lifecycle of multiple threads and ensuring that all threads terminate correctly can be cumbersome and error-prone. Structured concurrency addresses these challenges by introducing a more intuitive way to manage threads as a group, where the lifecycle of spawned threads is tied to the scope in which they are created.

try (var scope = new StructuredTaskScope.ShutdownOnFailure()) {
    Future future1 = scope.fork(() -> computePart1());
    Future future2 = scope.fork(() -> computePart2());
    int result = future1.resultNow() + future2.resultNow();
    System.out.println("Result: " + result);

In the above example, the StructuredTaskScope ensures that all tasks within the scope are completed before moving on to the next block of code, significantly reducing the boilerplate code associated with handling multiple threads and improving error handling.

Foreign Function & Memory API (Preview)

Java 22 continues to develop its capabilities in interfacing with non-Java code with improvements to the Foreign Function and Memory API. This API provides a safer and more efficient way for Java programs to interact with foreign functions and memory, such as those written in C or C++. It is designed to replace the Java Native Interface (JNI) with a more performant and reliable alternative.

The enhancements in this release focus on usability and performance improvements, including better resource management and a simplified API for memory segment handling. This is particularly beneficial for applications that need to interact closely with system-level components or third-party libraries written in other programming languages.

Vector API (Third Incubator)

The Vector API moves into its third incubator phase in Java 22, further refining its capabilities to provide a platform-agnostic way of expressing vector computations that reliably compile at runtime to optimal vector instructions on supported CPU architectures. This API aims to provide a significant performance boost to operations that can be parallelized across multiple data elements, such as in multimedia applications, scientific computing, and machine learning.

IntVector v = IntVector.fromArray(SPECIES_256, array, i);
IntVector w = IntVector.fromArray(SPECIES_256, array, i + VECTOR_WIDTH);
IntVector result = v.add(w);
result.intoArray(array, i);

The above code snippet demonstrates how developers can utilize the Vector API to perform operations over large datasets more efficiently, leveraging SIMD (Single Instruction, Multiple Data) capabilities of modern processors.

Pattern Matching Enhancements for switch

Java 22 also introduces further enhancements to pattern matching, particularly within the switch statement, to make it more powerful and expressive. These enhancements reduce the verbosity and increase the clarity of switch statements by allowing developers to match patterns directly in case labels.

Object obj = // ...
switch (obj) {
    case String s && s.length() > 10 -> System.out.println("Long string");
    case Integer i && i > 100 -> System.out.println("Large integer");
    default -> System.out.println("Other");

This enhancement makes it easier to conditionally execute code based on the structure and properties of objects, improving code readability and maintainability.


Java 22 introduces these and other improvements that continue to enhance the efficiency, performance, and functionality of Java applications. Whether it’s through making concurrent programming more manageable with structured concurrency, interfacing more seamlessly with non-Java code, or performing complex vector computations efficiently, Java 22 offers tools that meet the demands of modern software development.

As Java continues to evolve, it remains a powerful choice for developers looking for a robust, scalable, and forward-looking programming platform.

Want to learn more? Read our article on Hexagonal Architeture in Java.